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Thick Laminated both side & attached with Plastic Strips            

Thick Laminated & Framed on NU-Wood Board  

Size 20”x26”

DPhc 51        Pharmacokinetics (3 charts)

            (A)       Routes of Drug administration

            (B)       Absorption of Drugs, bioavailability & Drug distribution

            (C)       Binding of Drugs to plasma proteins and Drug metabolism & Drug elimination


DPhc 52        Drug – Receptor interactions and pharmacodynamics


DPhc 53        The Automatic nervous system (2 charts)

(A)       Introduction, efferent neurons, action of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system on effectororgans

(B)       Functions of parasympathetic nervous system, chemical signaling between cells and second messenger systems in intracellular response


DPhc 54        Cholinergic Agonists (2 charts)

            (A)       Overview, the cholinergic neuron

            (B)       Cholinergic receptors, direct acting cholinergic agonists, anticholinesterases (Reversible and


DPhc 55        Cholinergic Antagonists (2 charts)

            (A)       Cholinergic antagonists, site of actions of cholinergic antagonists

            (B)       Onset and duration of action of Neuromuscular blocking agents, mechanism of action of        

depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs

DPhc 56        Adrenergic agonists (3 charts)

(A)       Overview, site of action of adrenergic agonists, synthesis and release of norepinephrine from the adrenergic neuron

(B)       Types of adrenergic receptions, major effects by a and b adrenoceptors, structures of important adrenergic agonists.

(C)       Cardiovascular effects of IV. Of low doses of epinephrine norepinephrine isoproterenol, effects of inhaled adrenergic agonists


DPhc 57        Adrenergic Antagonists (2 charts)

(A)       Adrenergic blockers, covalent inactivation of a adrenoreceptior by phenoxy benzamine, actions of propanolol and other b-blockers

(B)       Comparison of agonists antagonists and partial agonists of b-adrenoreceptors, some clinical applications of b-blockers, summary of b-    adrenergic antagonists


DPhc 58        Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases (2 charts)

(A)       Summary of antiparkinson & anti-alzeheimer drugs, summary of some neurotransmitters of CNS Synaptic potentials (Excitatory and inhibitory pathways)

(B)       Overview of Parkinson disease, Drugs used in Parkinson disease effects of entacapone on dopa concentration in the CNS.


Dphc 59        Anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs

(A)       Summary of anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs, benzodiazepine GABA chloride ion channel complex therapentic disadvantages and advantages of anxiolytic and hypnotic agents


DPhc 60        Central Nervous system Stimulants

(A)              CNS stimulants mechanism of action of cocaine amphetamine and cannabinoid receptor


DPhc 61        Anesthetics

Summary of anesthetics, components of balanced anestheria, inodulation of a ligand-gated membrane channel and therapeutic disadvantages and advantages of some anesthetic agents.


DPhc 62        Antidepressant Drugs

Summary of antidepressants, mechanism of action of SSRI and TCA drugs mechanism of action of monoamine oxidase inhibitors


DPhc 63        Neuroleptic Drugs

Summary of neuroleptic drugs, dopamine blocking actions of neuroleptic drugs, mechanism of action of neuroleptic drugs


DPhc 64        Opioid Analgesics and Antagonists

Summary of opioid analgesics, mechanism of action of m-opioid receptor agonists competition of naloxone with opioid agonists


DPhc 66        Treatment of Heart Failure (3 charts)

(A)       Summary of Drugs used to treat Heart Failure Physiology of Muscle Contraction action potential of a Purkinje fiber.

(B)       Ion movements during the contraction of cardiac muscle cardiovascular consequences of heart failure, effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.

(C)       Mechanism of action of cardiac glycosides ventricular function curves in the normal heart in heart failure, and in HF treated with digitalis, sites of action by b-adrenergic agonists on heart muscle.


DPhc 67        Antiarrhythmic Drugs (3 charts)

(A)       Summary of antiarrhythmic drugs Therapeutic indications for some commonly encountered arrhythmias, Schematic representation of reentry.

            (B)       Action of antiarrhythmic drugs, schematic diagram fo the effects of clean IA, IB, IC agents

            (C)       Schematic diagram of the effects of clan III & clan IV agents


DPhc 68        Antianginal Drugs

Summary of antianginal drugs, effects of intrates and nitrites on smooth muscle, blood flow in a coronary artery partially blocked with atherosclerotic plaques, treatment of angina in patients with concomitant diseases


Dphc 69        Antihypertensive Drugs (2 charts)

(A)       Summary of antihypertensive drugs, major factors influencing blood pressure, response of the autonomic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system.

(B)       Treatment of hypertension in patients with concomitant diseases, actions of thiazide diuretics, action of b-adrenoceptor blocking agents, effects of ACE inhibitors, action of calcium -channel blockers, therapeutic applications of calcium channel blockers


DPhc 70        Drugs Affecting the Blood (3 charts)

            (A)       Summary of drugs used in treating dysfunctions of the blood, formation of a hemostatic plug

            (B)       Activation and aggregation of platelets, role of aspirin, mechanism of action of ticlopidine and

            clopidogrel, formation of a fibrin clot, mechanism of action of heparin

    (C)       Mechanism of action of warfarin, drugs affecting the anticoagnlant effects of warfarin, mechanism of action of streptokinase, causes and consequences

Dphc 71        Antihyperlipidemic Drugs (2 charts)

(A)       Summary of antihyperlipidemic drugs, metabolism of plasma lipoproteins and related genetic diseases

(B)       Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase by the statin drugs, inhibition of lipolysis in adipose tissue by niacin, activation of lipoprotein tipase by gemfibrozil, bile acid-binding resins


DPhc 72        Diuretic Drugs

Summary of diuretic drugs, sites of action of the diuretic drugs, sites of transport of solutes and water along the nephron, role of carbonic anhydrase in sodium retention by epithelial cells of renal tubule


DPhc 73        Hormones of the Pituitary and Thyroid (2 charts)

(A)       Some hormones and drugs affecting the hypothalamus, pituitary and thyroid, Hypothalamic and anterior pituitary hormones, secretions and actions of adreno-corticotropic hormone

(B)       Secretions of FSH and LH, actions of oxytocin and vasopression, biosynthesis of thyroid hormones


DPhc 74        Insulin and oral Hypoglycemic Drug (3 charts)

(A)       Summary of hypoglycemic agents, comparison of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, major factors contributing to hyperglycemia, Duration of type 2 diabetes.

(B)       Onset and duration of action of human insulin and insulin analogs, duration of action of some oral hypoglycemic agents, drugs        interacting with sulfonyl-urea drugs.

            (C)       Summary of oral hypoglycemic agents


DPhc 75        Estrogens and Androgens

Summary of sex hormones, benefits associated with postmenopausal estrogen replacement, regulation of secretion of testosterone, administration and fate of and rogens


DPhc 76        Adrenocorticosteroid Hormones

Summary of adrenal corticosteroids, regulation of corticosteroid secretion, gene regulation by glucocorticoids, pharmacologic effects 


DPhc 77        Drugs affecting the Respiratory system (2 charts)

(A)       Summary of drugs affecting the respiratory system, Comparison of bronchi of normal and asthmatic individuals. Treatment of asthma. Pharmacokinetics of inhaled glucocorticoids, Effect of spacer on the delivery of inhaled aerosol.

(B)       Sites of action of leukotriene-modifying drugs, Treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). FEV1 = forced expiratory volume in one second.


DPhc 78        Gastrointestinal and Antiemetic Drugs. (2 charts)

(A)       Summary of drugs used to treat peptic ulcer disease, Helicobacter pylori in association with gastric mucosa effects of acetylcholine, histamine, prostaglandin E2, and gastrin on gastrin acid secretion, administration and fate of cimetidine, drug interactions with cimetidine.

(B)       Comparison of  emetic potential of anticancer drugs, summary of drugs used to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, potencies of antiemetic drugs, summary of drugs used to treat diarrhea and constipation.


DPhc 79        Erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis and obesity

Summary of drugs used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis and obesity, mechanism of penile erection, effect of phosphodiesterase inhibitors on cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) changes in bone morphology seen in osteoporosis

DPhc 80        Principles of Antimicrobial therapy (2 charts)

(A)       Some laboratory techniques that are useful in diagnosis of microbial diseases Determination of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentratiion of an antibiotic, essential features of blood-brain barrier, schematic representation of blood-brain barrier.

(B)       Bar chart showing the six most commonly used drug families, color-coded representation of medically important microorganisms Mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics, sites of antimicrobial actions


DPhc 81        Inhibitors of cell wall synthesis (4 charts)

(A)       Summary of antimicrobial agents affecting cell wall synthesis, Structural features of b-lactam antibiotics, bacterial cell wall of gram-positive bacteria.

(B)       Typical Therapeutic Applications of pencillin G  ampicillin, Stability of the penicillins to acid, administration & fate of penicillin.

(C)       Summary of Therapeutic applications of cephalosporins, Administration and fate, Characteristics of some clinically useful cephalosporins.

(D)       Structural features of imipenem and Aztreonam antimicrobial spectrum of imipenem,  vancomycin Administration & fate of vancomycin.


DPhc 82        Protein Synthesis Inhibitors (4 charts)

(A)       Summary of protein synthesis inhibitors, Typical therapeutic applications of tetracylines, Administration and fate of tetracycline, M.O.A of tetracycline

(B)       Mechanism of action of amino glycosides, typical therapeutic applications of aminoglycosides, Administration and fate of aminoglycosides.

(C)       Macrolides: M.O.A of erythromycin and clindamycin. Typical therapeutic applications of macrolides. Administration and fate of macrolide Adverse effects of macrolide.

(D)       Inhibition of the cytochrome P450 system by erythromycin, Administration and fate of chloramphenicol, inhibition of the cytochrome P450 system by Chloramphenicol, Admin & fate of clindamycin, MOA of linezoid, Antimicrobial spectrum of linezoid.


DPhc 83        Quinolones, Folic Acid antagonists and urinary tract Antiseptics. (3 charts)

(A)       Summary of quinolones, Action of type II DNA topoisomerase, Summary of antimicrobial spectrum of quinolones, Typical therapeutic applicationsof ciprofloxaxin Administration & fate of fluoroquinolones.

(B)       Inhibition of tetrahydrofolate synthesis by sulfonamides and trimethoprim, admin and fate of sulfonamides, typical therapentic applications of co-trimoxazole, admin and fate of co-trimoxazole, formation of formaldehyde.61.        Summary of quinolones, action of type II DNA topoisomerase, summary of antimicrobial spectrum of quinolones, typical Therapeutic applications of applications of ciprofloxaxin administration & fate of fluoroquinolones.

(C)       Inhibition of tetrahydrofolate synthesis by sulfonamides and trimethoprim, Admin and fate of sulfonamides, Typical therapeutic applications of co-trimoxazole, Admin and fate of co-trimoxazole, Formation of formaldehyde.


DPhc 84        Antimycobacterial Drugs

Summary of drugs, Administration & fate of Isoniazid, Rifampin, Therapeutic margins for antitubercular drugs.

DPhc 85        Antifungal Drugs

                        Antifungal drugs, Prugs for subcutaneous and systemic mycotic infections


DPhc 86        Antiprotozoal  Drugs

Summary of antiprotozoal agents, Fate of metronidazole, diloxanide, primaquine Action of chloroquine, fate of chloroquine melarsoprol pentamidine, stibogluconate.


DPhc 87        Anthelmintic Drugs (2 charts)

            (A)       Summary of nematode infections & therapy

            (B)       Characteristics of and therapy for commonly encountered trematode infections, cestode


DPhc 88        Antiviral Drugs (5 charts)

            (A)       Antiviral drugs, Fate of oseltamivir, zanamivir. Amantadine rimantadine ribavirin.

            (B)       Action of acyclovir, fate of Acyclovir, Cidofovir, Foscarnet.

            (C)       Administration and fate of ganciclovir penciclovir and famciclovir antiviral agents.

            (D)       Drugs used to prevent HIV from replicating HAART.

            (E)       Admin and fate of zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine and stavudine, tenofovir, nevirapine,


DPhc 89        Anticancer Drugs (7 charts)

            (A)       Summary, effects of various treatments

            (B)       Effects of chemotherapeutic agents on mammalian cells, mechanism of action of


(C)       Action of 6-mercaptopurine, fate of 6-mercaptopurine action of 5-FU. Fluorouracil, capecitabine.

            (D)       Administration and fate of cytarabine, action of gemcitabine, fate of dactinomycin Doxorubicin.

            (E)       Alkylation of guanine fate of cyclophosphamide lomustine temozolomide.

            (F)       Action of microtubule inhibitors, steroid hormones,

            (G)       Fate of cirplatin action of DNA Topoisomerases Etoposide.


Dphc 90        Immunosuppessive Drugs (2 charts)

            (A)       Immunosuppressant drugs, selected cytokines M.D.A. cyclosporine and tacrolimus.

            (B)       Sites of action of common immunosuppressants


DPhc 91        Anti-inflammatory Drugs (3 charts)

(A)       Summary of anti-in-Hammatory drugs, COX-1 and COX-2, synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes.

(B)       Metabolism of aspirin, action of NSAIDs, Renal effect of aspirin, effects of salicylate drugs Interacting with salicylates.

            (C)       Metobolism of acetaminophen, Site of leflunomide Role of uric acid in inflammation of gout.


DPhc 92        Autacoids and Antagonists  (2 charts)

(A)       Summary of drugs affecting autacoids Biosynthesis and action of histamine, Effects of H1 antihistamines.

            (B)       Drugs for the treatment and prophylaxis of migraine


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